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Removed indicates attrition from the samplean employer removed a job advertisement before one or both applicants could apply for the job. For simple bivariate analyses, I use a two tailed paired t test to test for significant differences within pairs from the same sample Kutner et al. 2004. However, to examine between pair effects, I use a less efficient estimator because the sample and sample size vary between the two groups. The Welch's t test is appropriate with two independent samples of unequal sample size and unequal variance Kutner et al. 2004.
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Science education in Nigeria concentrates on the teaching of science concepts, method of teaching and addressing misconceptions held by learners regarding science concepts. Science education is very important to the development of any nation that is why every nation must take it very serious in all institutions of learning. Many of the developed worlds were able to achieve so much in science and technology because of science education. Launching of sputnik by the Russian government in October, 4 1957 would not have been possible if not for the position they placed physics in science education . Science education comprises three subjects namely biology, chemistry and physics which are combined with education and over the year there has been low enrolment of these courses in our institutions as identified by ; causes of this low enrolment include society disdain, mockery of teacher and low prestige of teachers . Interestingly, as important as these courses are, students performance has not been encouraging in them and this is worrisome and called for investigation . The table below shows students enrolment and performance in WAEC in the three subjects that make up science education from 2005 2009. Despite all the great things science education can accomplished in the national development of a nation there are many problems militating against it especially in Nigeria. This paper focused on the importance of science education and problems militating against the development of it and the way forward. Science education is very important to the development of any nation in many areas. A graduate of physics education can be self employed as opined by .
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Comparisons of broad categorical classifications show some positive effects of college type on occupational status and income Brewer, Eide, and Ehrenberg 1999; Monks 2000, while other results show that students at more selective colleges are more likely to graduate, more likely to attend graduate or professional programs, and earn higher wages Alon and Tienda 2005; Bowen and Bok 1998; Brand and Halaby 2006; Brewer and Ehrenberg 1996. Social capital and institutional networks at elite schools also benefit graduates Mullen 2010; Rivera 2011. Non experimental data, though, are subject to potential bias due to correlations between unobserved factors, such as student ability and motivation, that may influence both admission to selective colleges and outcomes such as graduation and wages Dale and Krueger 2002, 2011; Gerber and Cheung 2008. Scholars using more sophisticated methods to address selection bias find mixed results about the effect of college selectivity. Black and Smith 2004 match similar individuals from different institutions using test scores and find that college selectivity has a positive effect on wages. Using a regression discontinuity design, Hoekstra 2009 finds that white men who barely made the admissions cutoff at a flagship state university experience 20 percent higher wages than white men who barely missed the admissions cutoff. Dale and Krueger 2002 use the College and Beyond Survey to examine wage returns 15 years after graduation and find no effect of college selectivity when matching students based on institutions they were admitted to but did not attend. In a follow up, Dale and Krueger 2011 include an additional cohort and again find no effect of college selectivity on earnings after adjusting for selection. Additional research presents mixed conclusions on the existence and size of selection bias Behrman, Rosenzweig, and Taubman 1996; Long 2008. Thus, it is somewhat unclear whether college selectivity has a causal effect on labor market outcomes. If racial differences in the qualitative aspect of educational credentials, that is, college selectivity, explain racial economic inequality, then establishing the effect of college selectivity is paramount. This leads to my first research question: 1 Does college selectivity affect labor market outcomes?Research using a variety of methods has found evidence of racial discrimination at various stages of the labor market, particularly for low wage job seekers. These studies have documented the role of employer attitudes toward and opinions of blacks Kirschenman and Neckerman 1991; Moss and Tilly 2001; Waldinger 1997, the role of racially targeted recruitment Braddock and McPartland 1987; Moss and Tilly 2001; Kirschenman and Neckerman 1991, and racial differences in employment outcomes using experimental methods Bertrand and Mullainathan 2004; Pager 2003, 2007a; Pager, Western, and Bonikowski 2009. Unfortunately, these studies do not reveal whether higher education credentials attenuate racial discrimination. Explicit examination of labor market discrimination is an important but difficult endeavor for social science research. Although there are clear merits to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968, which gives individuals the right to sue discriminatory employers, it appears to have made identifying discrimination more difficult without entirely eliminating it. As Doug Massey states, when pushed by the federal government to end overt discriminatory practices, are likely to innovate new and more subtle ways to maintain their privileged position in society. 2007, 54. Researchers are presented with the methodological puzzle of adopting new ways to measure something that can no longer be directly observed. Direct questions about prejudiced attitudes and beliefs are less valuable today than in the past. Research finds increasingly lower affirmative response rates to such questions Bobo 2001; Schuman et al. 2001; see also Blank, Dabady, and Citro 2004. One reason is the development of a social consciousness regarding such attitudes and beliefs, or social desirability bias Pager and Quillian 2005. Individuals may present a public facade about non whites that hides their true opinions Bonilla Silva 2010. Additionally, although information collected from surveys on attitudes can be important, it says nothing of discriminatory actions see Pager and Quillian 2005. Thus, many scholars have relied on statistical residuals to examine discrimination.